The Prussian Issued Landwehr Wappen 1842 to 1895

Tony without Kaiser

Departed
Staff member
Below is a M1860 Prussian eagle Wappen for Line Regiments. This is the standard issue pattern after 1860 with the Vaterland Bandeau as part of the stamping.

Can anyone show me a M1860 Reserve / Landwehr Prussian eagle Wappen? It would be the same eagle Wappen, but with silver Landwehr cross overlay instead of the Bandeau and FR.

Note the M1860 has three key features: vertical tail feathers, the area between the knees and wings is not cut out, and the arms (radius and humerus) when compared to an M1842 are reduced to a thin line with three 'balls'

An M1860 Reserve / Landwehr Prussian Eagle Wappen has eluded me and I would like to see one if it exists. Again, same basic eagle as below, but with silver Landwehr cross overlay.

dbh01a.jpg
 
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Steve Nick

Active member
Tony:

Something like this? I have this one in my inventory as an 1871 pattern.
 

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Tony without Kaiser

Departed
Staff member
Thank you Steve, that is a nice M1871.

I am trying to find even a photo of an M1860/67 eagle Wappen with a Landwehr cross. I don't even l know if it exists.

Prussian_Wappens.jpg
 

Tony without Kaiser

Departed
Staff member
Thank you Sandy. That helmet above is an M1860 with the more refined eagle M1867 Wappen, as that elegant shape eventually became the standard officer's eagle Wappen. It is also for a Reserve officer as the cross is on the tail.

The main reason I have not been able to find an M1860 Reserve / Landwehr Prussian eagle Wappen is that AKO 2.8.1860 directed that Landwehr would no longer use the spiked helmet, but instead wear a Tschako with the oval Landwehr Wappen. So based on that, technically, there would have been no need for a Landwehr M1860 eagle Wappen until they reverted back to the spiked helmet in 1881. But what about the Reserve?

Although the M1860 issue pattern Reserve / Landwehr still eludes me, I noticed that Tony V's avatar of a few of his helmets, has an M1856 with what appeared to be an M1860 eagle Wappen. Tony V. kindly allowed me to use his image, and here it is. As you can see it is the identical pattern to an issued M1860 but clearly a private purchase as the gap between the wings is cut out (as is proper for an officer’s helmet). This cut out did not appear on issued helmets until the M1891.

But the crown is not cut out.

TonyVickers_M1856_small.jpg

Then I found a thread where member krb450 was selling a rather remarkable M1856 Grenadier Regt. Nr. 9, and that helmet has an M1860 pattern Grenadier Private Purchase, (as is proper for an officer’s helmet) but this one has the crown cut out, and the gap between wings and knees not cut out. The opposite of Tony V's example. Not Reserve, but absolutely an M1860 eagle. While we are here, does anyone know what book that is?

krb450_GR9b.jpg

At least after much searching references and hundreds of Cdv (again) I am starting to see better the evolution of the Prussian Officer Wappen, and that it was indeed manufactured in the same pattern as the issued M1860. So that's progress.

However, still no evidence of an issued M1860 with a Landwehr cross for the soldiers of the Reserve. I am convinced they are out there, I just have never seen one.
 
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Zebedeus

Active member
Hi Tony,
The book is "The German Infantry from 1871 to 1914 - Uniform and equipment (Volume 1) by Ulrich Herr and Jens Nguyen. Verlag Militaria.
Zeb
 

Glennj

Active member
Tony,

just to clear up the matter of reserve officers before the introduction of the M67 model, I would add the following: The institution of reserve officers at that time did not exist! In fact, I did a bit of research into this particular issue some time ago and it can be summarized as follows:

The Decree concerning the terms of service of non active officers dated 4 July 1868 provided for the classification of the former Landwehr officers into both Reserve and Landwehr officers. The first promotions of newly commissioned Vice-Wachtmeistern to Seconde-Lieutenant der Reserve occurred on 3 September 1868 and the first conversions from Landwehr to Reserve status followed on 10 September 1868. The conversions from Landwehr to Reserve commissions continued throughout the remainder of 1868 and the first half of 1869.

Regards
Glenn
 

Tony without Kaiser

Departed
Staff member
Thank you Glenn. This topic seems to blend in with this topic regarding Older Helmets with updated Eagle Wappen

From Pietsch p.65

Pietsch_p65.jpg

The helmets of the Reserve Officers

“The Reserve Officer Corps was established on July 4, 1868. These officers received the regimental uniform in full, like the active ones, only on the helmet eagle the Landwehr cross of the opposite color is worn. Since the inscription is already in the cross as on the eagle Bandeau, the Bandeau was not used. After wartime Ordinance dated February 17, 1869, the cross should lie on the center of the chest, so letters and shield, and the center piece of the guard star and the coat of arms cover, lie on top.”


Based on this, 1869 was the first time that a Landwehr cross was put on a Reserve officer. This suggests that any officer helmets with Landwehr cross 1842 to 1860 are Landwehr Officer. Not Reserve.

That evidence appears to clear up the use of the Landwehr cross on officer helmets like M1842 etc. Thank you again Glenn for your assistance with the 1869 Uniformirungsliste. I will use those images together with the translations here when I compile the research. It appears I answered my own question regarding the 'never seen' issued M1860 eagle with Landwehr cross.
 
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Tony without Kaiser

Departed
Staff member
Due to the near Gods-like power of Lowest-Bidder Admin Help The title of this thread has changed from "Does anyone have evidence of M1860 Reserve / Landwehr Prussian Eagle Wappen?" to "The Prussian Landwehr Wappen 1842 to 1895."

Why? Essentially I have never been able to find an issued M1860 Line eagle Wappen with a Landwehr cross and now I know why. An issued M1860 Line eagle Wappen with a Landwehr cross should not exist. I will explain.

For years I have been collecting and studying the Prussian eagle Wappen, especially any with a Landwehr cross, and it occurred to me that I was not clear regarding the timeline of its use. Every reference gives a piece of the puzzle, but often misses other details. Current references in any language frequently mixed up the timeline of the Landwehr and Reserve. So with a lot of help from collecting friends, weeks with my nose stuck in Knötel, Pietsch, Kraus, Larcade, and many other references, and with the extraordinary research abilities of Glenn Jewison, I was able to piece all the bits together and place dates on Landwehr and Reserve Prussian eagle Wappens that I believe to be correct. Feel free to disagree.

Note 1: Unfortunately (for me) what this means is that most times I use the word 'Reserve' on my website, it's probably wrong, which will now take hours to correct. So be it. Not the first time I've been wrong.

Note 2: To prevent confusion (if possible in one of my posts) I am going to refer to the Landwehr cross worn on the eagle's chest from this point simply as 'the cross'.

1842 Landwehr

Establish first: Prussia made extensive use of the Landwehr. From Wikipedia (yes Wikipedia and support them):

"The landwehr in Prussia, was first formed by a royal edict of 17 March 1813, which called up all men capable of bearing arms between the ages of eighteen and forty-five, and not serving in the regular army, for the defence of the country. After the peace of 1815 this force was made an integral part of the Prussian Army, each brigade being composed of one line and one Landwehr regiment."

So this plus other references make it clear that essentially the Landwehr were the Reserve. (This is incorrect. See Glenn posting #12 below)

Here are two of the recognized patterns of the issued M1842 Prussian Landwehr eagle Wappen.

M1842_Landwehr1.jpg

This might be a good time to mention that I have never seen a Prussian M1842 eagle Wappen with the crown cut out, which is what we normally associate with officer (Private Purchase). So to stir the pot a bit more, I don’t believe there was any difference between the issued and officer M1842 helmet eagle Wappens, and that voided crowns for Private Purchase and officers was a post 1860 development. Perhaps there are some Line or Landwehr M1842 with voided crowns out there, but the norm seems to be the same solid crown for all ranks from 1842 to 1860.

1860 Landwehr

Pietsch p.238

Pietsch_p238.jpg

Translation: On August 2, 1860, it was decided that the Landwehr should gradually replace the helmet with the Jäger Tschako with a black, white oval cockade with a silver border for officers and sergeants, on which the metal cross (Fig. 76 / 6), with the Guard and Grenadier Landwehr the brass star with a white cross (Fig. 76/5).

So logically, there was no requirement for issued M1860 Line eagle Wappens with a chest cross, as the Landwehr adopted the Tschako in 1860, and Reserves were not directed to wear the chest cross until 1896. That would explain the gap of eagle Wappens with the chest cross between 1860 and 1881 when the Landwehr started wearing leather spiked helmets again. So there it is. The end to my futile search for M1860 issued Landwehr Eagle Wappen with a chest cross.

So here is the Landwehr Wappen from 1860 to 1881, plus I am including the Garde Landwehr Wappen, as these are not often seen.

1860_Landwehr.jpg


1868 / 1869 Reserve

Now finally the Reserve shows up in documentation concerning the wearing of the cross. As Glenn indicated in Post #8 above, the institution of Reserve officers did not exist until 1868.

"The Decree concerning the terms of service of non active officers dated 4 July 1868 provided for the classification of the former Landwehr officers into both Reserve and Landwehr officers."

However, as you will see below, only officer's helmets were affected. From Pietsch Vol 1 p.65

Pietsch_Vol_1_p65.jpg

Translation: The helmets of the Reserve Officers

“The Reserve Officer Corps was established on July 4, 1868. These officers received the regimental uniform in full, like the active ones, only on the helmet eagle the Landwehr cross of the opposite colour. Since the inscription was already in the cross as on the eagle Bandeau, the Bandeau did not remain. After wartime Ordinance dated February 17, 1869, the cross should lie on the center of the chest”


And again here in Larcade Vol I p.35

Larcade_Vol_I_ p35.jpg
Larcade_Vol_I_ p36.jpg

Translation: The corps of reserve officers was created on July 4, 1868. These officers wore the uniform of the regiment from which they came. The plate of the helmet remained that of the regiment of origin but without the "Vaterland-Bandeau" whose motto figured on the Landwehr cross.

This cross was silver on the golden eagles, and golden on the silver eagles.

An ordinance from the Ministry of War dated February 17, 1869 prescribes that this cross must be fixed in the middle of the body of the eagle, on the monograms or on the star of the Guard. But, two months later, the A.K.O. from April 6, 1869 gave him his final place. It will be placed at the bottom of the eagle, under the motif adorning the center of the plate.


Based on these references, 1868 was the first time that a Landwehr cross was put on a Reserve officer eagle Wappen. Plus it clarifies that after 6 April 1869 Reserve officers wore the cross soldered on the tail feathers of the eagle Wappen.

However, I could find no reference to soldiers of the Reserve also wearing the chest cross after 1869, because they did not. In what I call ‘The smoking gun’. Glenn tracked down a scan of the 1869 Uniformirungsliste by Louis Mila, a noted Prussian uniform researcher who lived during that period. The extract Glenn shared was the published 1869 – “Uniformirungs-Liste der Königlich Preußischen Armee und Marine fur das Jahr 1869.

Mila 1869.jpg

Translation: Reserve Troops: These have the clothing and equipment as per the corresponding units of the standing army. The Reserve officers wear the Landwehr cross on the headdress.”

This clearly states that soldiers of the Reserve did not use the chest cross. They used the same eagle Wappen as the three Line Btlns, as they were to be supplied by the Regiment or Btln they were assigned to. Only officers wore the cross on their eagle Wappen.

If you think about it logistically, it makes no sense at all for a Line Regiment to have a Battalions worth of leather helmets with Landwehr crosses laying around in Regimental Stores all year, in just the right sizes for the Reservists who show up for manoeuvres. Not practical.

Then again from Glenn, in Louis Mila’s “Uniformierungliste” of 1881, confirmation again from 1881 that Reservists would not wear a cross (at least until the formation of exercise Reserve Regiments)

§ 289 – Reservisten
“These have the clothing and equipment as per the corresponding ranks of the units of the standing army, in which they are incorporated”

1881 Landwehr


Back to the Landwehr. A.K.O. of 20 January 1881 gradually replaced the Tschako for Landwehr Infantry by the spiked helmet once again. From Larcade Vol I p38

Larcade_Vol_I_p38.jpg

Translation: 1881
By A.K.O. From January 20, 1881, the Tschako is abandoned and replaced by the leather spiked helmet model 1871.


Other references confirm this occurred in 1881. This then is the first instance of the cross on the chest of a Prussian issued eagle Wappen after 1860. That implies that any issued M1871 eagle Wappen with a cross on the chest is (ready?) actually an 1881 Landwehr eagle Wappen. Reservists were supplied by their assigned unit and would have worn the standard Line eagle Wappen with the Fatherland Bandeau. Based on this, below is an M1871 eagle Wappen, as adopted by the Landwehr in 1881.

M1871__Landwehr_Large2.jpg

An observation on equipment roll-outs if I may. There often appears to be a misconception of how new models of equipment were introduced. To use this Landwehr example, many seem to erroneously think that the soldiers went to bed 19 January 1881 with a Tschako in their locker, and woke up with a shiny new M1871 spiked helmet in the locker. That is not how roll-outs of new equipment occur. It is a slow process, typically taking years to complete the transition. It is well recorded that in 1914, many Landwehr Btlns were still wearing the old M1860 Tschako. 43 years after the 1881 AKO, many units still had not converted to the leather spiked helmet.


Reserve 1886 and 1903

There is no mention of the Reserves wearing the cross until the Bekleidungsordnung of 1896 which directed “All Reserve, Landwehr and Landsturm formations wear as a common item of insignia the Landwehr Cross of white or yellow”

However..

Glenn pointed out: "Both the Bekleidungsordnungen of 1896 and 1903 clearly state that “the men of the Beurlaubtenstande who are placed in a line (i.e. active unit) wear the uniform of the latter without the Landwehr cross”. Both editions do however state that “Reserve-Regiments” (i.e. exercise formation formed in peacetime do so) However, one must remember that reservists served with their original unit on recall for training”

So even as late as 1903, Reservists serving with their assigned Line unit were directed to wear the standard Line eagle Wappen with Fatherland Bandeau. That implies that any issued M1891 eagle Wappen (with threaded posts on the back) with a cross on the chest is Landwehr, as once again, Reservists were supplied by their assigned unit and would have worn the standard Line eagle Wappen with the Fatherland Bandeau.

This also suggests that it was the Landwehr who were first issued (supposedly) M1895 (loops on the back) Prussian Wappens with chest cross, and that issued Reserve Wappens are from 1896 onwards, but only for raised Reserve exercise formations. How often that happened is unknown.

M1895__Landwehr_Large.jpg

So, to summarise, here is my understanding of the timeline of the Landwehr cross as worn on the leather helmet:

1. M1842 and M1856/57 only the Landwehr wore the Landwehr cross on the chest.

2. 1860 the Landwehr adopted the Tschako with the oval Landwehr cross Wappen.

3. 1868 Corps of Reserve Officers was raised but only officers were authorized to wear the Landwehr cross on the chest of the Prussian eagle Wappen. Soldiers of the Reserve did not as they were outfitted by the Line unit.

4. 1869 Reserve officers are directed to wear the Landwehr cross on the tail feathers so the 'FR' is visible on the chest.

5. 1881 the Landwehr were directed to abandon the Tschako and once again wear the M1871 spiked leather helmet with a Landwehr cross on the chest.

6. 1896 the Reserve soldiers are directed to wear the same eagle Wappen as the Landwehr with the cross on the chest,

So below is a more accurate representation of the chronological evolution of the Landwehr, and 1896 Reserve eagle Wappens. These are to scale, taken at identical distances from the camera.

Prussian_Landwehr_Wappens.jpg

In closing, I never miss an opportunity to plug my Wappen Want List: https://www.kaisersbunker.com/wantlist_wappens.htm

And for suffering though my agonizingly long posting, some eye candy. The helmet that started it all.

M1842.jpg
 
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JohnM

Active member
Excellent research Tony! Extremely clear and concise! This really explains the 30 year absence of Landwehr wappens! Thank you once again for sharing your knowledge and making us a little smarter!

John
 

Glennj

Active member
Tony,

great post; just one comment. I don‘t fully agree with the statement that essentially the Landwehr were the reserve or there was no such thing as a reserve until 1868. Certainly there were no corps of reserve officers before 1868 but the conscripted soldiers served five years in the standing army (usually two years with the colours and three in the reserve for infantry and three and two years for other arms) before passing into the Landwehr. This of course does not alter the premise that reservists were equipped, clothed and reported for training with their former active unit.

Regards
Glenn
 

Tony without Kaiser

Departed
Staff member
Outstanding. Thank you Glenn.

I just want this thread to hopefully correct the confusion (mostly mine) between Landwehr and Reserve. As you know I am not very knowledgable on units and structure or the history of them etc. My interest is on what the soldiers were wearing at any particular time.

Your comment helps very much as it clarifies that there was a Reserve in that period 1842 to 1868, but they were not wearing a Landwehr cross.
 

b.loree

Administrator
Staff member
Excellent post T! This really clears up the issue with great research and clear concise conclusions. Thank you for all the work you put into this! 👍
 

Glennj

Active member
Thank you Tony,

just for completeness, I would add that the existence of a body of reserves was in effect following the law of 3 September 1814 and further codified by the Landwehr-Order 21 November 1815. These decrees stipulated the obligation and period to serve in the standing army (with the colours and in the reserve) and the Landwehr. Although I will not provide a full translation of this extract from Helldorff's Dienstvorschriften (service regulations), suffice to say, it reiterates that the 1st levy of the Landwehr would be supplemented yearly by those soldiers completing their term of service in the reserve.

According to the law of 3 September 1814, all those subject to military service, were to serve five years in the standing army (with the colours and the reserve) before transfer to the Landwehr.

Regards
Glenn

Landwehr-Ordnung.jpg
 

SkipperJohn

Well-known member
Excellent post Tony!
I can only imagine the hours spent researching this information. It provides a clear and concise history of the Landwehr Wappen before and after the reformation of the army in 1860, as well as a description of how the reserve was initiated. I find myself asking a couple of questions now on later reserve and Landwehr helmets and Wappens.
1) Since the reserve was set up in 1868 and only officers wore the cross on the chest, and after 1869 officers wore the cross on the tailfeathers, and both of these officer Wappens were devoid of the bandeaux; can it be safely assumed that the Wappens with both the bandeaux and the cross on the tailfeathers must be reserve and not Landwehr?
2) Were the 1860 oval Wappens made of stamped brass and then painted, or were there early versions made of stamped steel?
3) Since photographs exist of troops wearing the Tschako in later uniforms (1907 and 1914) with the oval Landwehr Wappen; could one assume that these are Landsturm troops? Were the older Tschakos and oval Wappens handed down for use by the Landsturm and utilized well into 1915?

John
 

Tony without Kaiser

Departed
Staff member
Thanks John,

1. Glenn pointed out in post #16 the Reserve existed in 1813, however the institution of Reserve officers did not exist until 1868. Then as the references explain, first the Landwehr cross for Reserve officers was on the chest, then moved to the tail feathers in 1869 to allow the 'FR' on the chest to be visible. Why? It can probably be inferred, that the about-face from chest to tail feathers for the cross was to distinguish Reserve officers from Landwehr, even though the Landwehr officers were wearing the Tschako at the time. Which was quite convenient when the Landwehr again adopted the spiked helmet in 1881 as they went back to the cross on the chest.

So what is the officer when there is a Fatherland Bandeau and Landwehr cross on the tail feathers? I don't know. But the reasonable explanation is is probably Line officers reverting to Reserve, using their Line helmet but adding the Landwehr cross in the directed position for the Reserve officers, which is the tail feathers. So I would agree with you on that assumption (although I dislike assumptions). Here is a photo I traded to Colonel Joe years ago.

1.jpg


2. I have had several M1860 Landwehr Tschako Wappen and seen many, and the oval is always magnetic as they typically have spots of rusting, but not the cross. So the cross itself must be Neusilber or some form of Buntmetall.

3. The reference states that that in 1914, many Landwehr Btlns were still wearing the old M1860 Tschako. According to Kraus vol. I p.468 due to shortages of leather spiked helmets in 1914 when war was declared, Landwehr Infantry Regts 8, 24, 39, 47, and 93 were initially issued the old Tschako with Landwehr plate, which were later replaced by spiked helmets. Based on that, I think the only way you can tell the difference between a Landwehr and Landsturm soldier in a WWI photo is if the collars or shoulder straps can be seen, or if it is a Litewka.

Landwehr had a well established system of shoulder straps, while the Landsturm (in addition to that incredibly rare cool leather Schirmmütze) typically wore the Battalion number on the collars. Other members can explain those details better, as I really don't study the First War period. If I needed information on Wartime insignia, I could just call or email Chip Minx. That telephone line to my great sadness no longer picks up.

2.jpg


3.jpg
 
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SkipperJohn

Well-known member
Thanks Tony. Once again a thorough explanation. I was referring only to officer reserves above when asking about the combination bandeaux and cross Wappen. I have never seen an enlisted version of this combination and I doubt that one ever existed. I also re-read your article on kaisersbunker.com that explained Tschakos being transferred to the Landsturm and remaining in use until 1916. Knowing how thrifty the Prussian, and then German, Army was I have no doubt that some of these Tschakos were converted once again for use by police officers in the Weimar Republic.
I am grateful to learn that the oval Wappens were magnetic. Recently I was looking at a model 1860 Tschako with an oval Wappen and it was brass.
I could have easily made a bad purchase if not for this forum and the education it offers.

John
 
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garlanj

Member
Tony, looking at your picture of the line officer got me to wondering.
This is a plate I got years ago which I always thought had either been 'messed' with or was a copy (or possibly both) as it had both the bandeau and the cross.
IMG_0001.JPG

It looks good from the front but is noticably heavier than my other wappen and the back doesnt look like a stamping, although it doesnt look galvano either.

IMG_0003.JPG

Just thought I'd see what everyone thinks.

All the best

Jeremy
 
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